What Is the Difference Between the ® Symbol and the TM Symbol?


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Have you ever noticed that trademarks are often followed by a symbol such as a little ® or a small TM? What do these symbols mean in relation to the trademark that they are attached to? Each symbol indicates to the consuming public information about the trademark rights that are associated with the specific trademark that the ® or TM symbol is attached to.

The rights associated with these marks are different from one another yet both originate from the Lanham Act, which is the federal piece of law that is focused solely on trademark rights. In either case, the ® symbol and the TM symbol are meant to notify potential infringers that the trademark associated with the symbol is a claimed trademark.

What The ® Symbol Is All About

The ® signifies that the trademark is a federally registered trademark. This means that the trademark owner has filed a trademark application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the application was reviewed by a trademark examiner to ensure that the mark is eligible for registration and won’t be confused with another trademark that is already in use in commerce, the trademark has been officially recorded in the Official Gazette, and the trademark owner has been issued a trademark registration certificate. Once the trademark is registered with the USPTO, use of the ® symbol may commence.

Federal registration of a trademark affords the trademark with certain legal protections in the event that someone infringes on the registered trademark. Registration creates a presumption that the trademark owner in fact owns the trademark, and makes it possible for the trademark owner to seek treble, i.e., triple, damages in infringement actions.

What Does the TM Symbol Mean?

The TM symbol, on the other hand, indicates that the trademark that the symbol is attached to is eligible for common law rights, but that the trademark has not been federally registered. Trademark owners that are in the process of having their trademark application reviewed by the USPTO are permitted to use the TM symbol, and when their trademark application is accepted the symbol associated with the now-registered trademark can be switched from the TM symbol to the ® symbol.

Trademarks that are not registered, and thus are indicated with the TM symbol, are not automatically legally protected in the same way that registered trademarks are protected in the event of trademark infringement. Rather, a trademark that has an attached TM symbol requires additional criteria in order for common law trademark protections to attach to the unregistered trademark. These additional criteria include that the trademark owner must prove that he or she was the first to use the unregistered trademark in commerce, and that the infringer’s infringement will confuse consumers as to the source of the trademarked good or product.

Contact The Rapacke Law Group Today

If you are concerned that your trademark has been infringed, or need help with the federal registration process, you can reach out to a trusted and proven attorney at The Rapacke Law Group. RLG has the skills and experience to handle any legal issues with respect to trademark matters, including registration and bringing infringement actions. RLG can be reached at 954-951-0154 or by completing this online contact form.

Andrew Rapacke

Andrew Rapacke

Andrew Rapacke is a registered patent attorney and serves as Managing Partner at The Rapacke Law Group, a full service intellectual property law firm. If you would like to speak with Andrew Rapacke, click here to schedule your free consultation.

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